History of American Education
Education in America laid its foundations the in early colonial era. With the development of new colonies, new education schemes started to rise as well. Education was properly made mandatory first time in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1642. Most of the schools opened in the colonial era's of the 1640's and 50's were private. It was in 1636 when the foundation of America's oldest institute of higher learning, Harvard University, was laid. The University initiated its operations in 1938.
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Since at those times, colonies were dominated by religion, hence most of the universities stressed upon literacy so that the new generation could learn to read the bible. In 1785, The Land Ordinance was passed by the national government that came after the American Revolution. The ordinance reserved a portion of every township in unincorporated territories. The American Revolution was followed by a major emphasis on education in America, hence boosting the literacy rate of America to the top. The Land Ordinance remained the same until there came, The Homestead Act in 1862.
Until the 1840's, schools and universities were mainly private and elementary education wasn't free until 1870, but still, according to the 1840's census, America achieved the top most literacy rate among others. The main reason why America achieved a near-universal literacy rate was because most of the children were being educated in schools rather than in homes. It showed that in 1771-1773 the ratio of home education as compared to school education was .25, but it rose to 1.68 in 1787-1804. Records also showed that the increase in children receiving education in 1771-1773 was 33%, which rose to 69% in 1787-1804.
Horace Mann, an education reformer belonging from Massachusetts, started demanding public schools for all and after he became the Secretary of Education in 1837, a nationwide chain of common schools were initiated with the help of Mann. This system was first started in Massachusetts and mainly focused on elementary education but soon the North side of America also started adopting the system of common schools; including Connecticut in 1849.
At the dawn of the 20th century there were around 160,000 students being educated in around 1,000 colleges and universities. A major growth in the establishment of colleges and universities was seen in the 1800's and the early 20th century as a lot of humanitarians like Leland Stanford, who established Stanford University in 1891, gifted universities and colleges to America.
In most of the History of American Education, the education system was rather based upon inequality and racism. Usually African Americans received nearly 0% percent education, however some of them managed to become literate, but most of them got their basic right snatched away from them. But it was after the Civil War when, most of the first laws establishing public education in Southern states by an alliance of freedmen and white Republicans in Reconstruction state legislatures. An agency with the name of Freedmen Bureau was also created, which administrated Reconstruction and also founded several public schools. The bureau also managed to bind freedmen and planters in contracts and protected and educated freedmen during the transition after war.
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Q:Can you explain what is the NEA in History Of American Education?
A:NEA stands for National Education Association. It was developed in 1917 to create a broad platform for teachers and educators in the nation. The association promoted teachers education and working conditions. This association played a major role in help bringing equality in the education system, quality services, and dissolve segregation.
Q:Can you specify the emergence of special education in relevance to the the history of education in America?
A:If the history of education in America is studied, it will reveal that special education is not a very old field of study. It emerged as an area of focus after World War II, when some parent groups started advocating for it. Today there are special education schools and colleges as well as courses that offer comprehensive study of special education at a bachelor's and master's level.
Q:While looking at the history of us education online, I came across Teaching ESL Degrees. Tell me about them?
A:Teaching ESL Degrees provide students with the knowledge and skills they need to teach English as a second language. The MA and MS degree program in this field is focused on laying the theoretical foundations, while in the M.Ed program its more about teaching practices and techniques. Students interested in applied linguistic research usually do their MA is ESL.
Q:As I was reading about the history of public education in America, I came across a bachelor degree offered in this field. What are the admission requirements for this program?
A:A bachelor degree is an undergraduate program that is offered by numerous colleges around the nation. You must have a high school diploma in order to be eligible for enrollment in a bachelor program. Other admission requirements will depend upon the academic field you wish to specialize in. a bachelor program can also be earned online via distant education schools.
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